Isogenic.info has two sub-sites plus a single page on animal models and the author.                               
                                                   Site map

My new web site (3Rs-reduction.co.uk) is designed to help scientists teach themselves the principles of designing experiments involving laboratory animals. It is still under development, but you can try it now.

Click here

Michael Festing, 16th. Feb. 2012


This sub-web describes 15 steps in the design and statistical analysis of experiments involving laboratory animals. Such experiments could frequently be designed better, leading to a saving in animals, cost, time and effort, and improving the scientific quality of the results.


Isogenic strains (inbred strains and F1 hybrids) have made a substantial contribution to biomedical research. This sub-web describes their properties and characteristics and contrasts them with the genetically heterogeneous “outbred” stocks of mice and rats which are still widely used in biomedical research. It makes the case that the use of outbred stocks should be discontinued unless specifically justified for a particular research application.

Animal models

This is a single page on the philosophy of animal models

Genetics and toxicity testing.

Toxicologists usually use a single stock of outbred mice or rats for screening potential new drugs or environmental chemicals. They ignore genetic variation in their test animals. This is poor science and may well account for the poor record of animal toxicity testing. Click here. to go directly to the page which explains this.

Please note: Size of text is controlled by your web browser. On Internet Explorer go to View, Text size.
























8th. Sept. 2006